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ROOTS OF POLITICAL MOBILIZATION FOR ETHNIC IDENTITIES IN POST-INDEPENDENCE INDIA

India as a union of States and Union Territories emerged only through British –India regime in between seventeenth and nineteenth centuries; and it was consolidated after independence under the so called rule of the people for the people and by the people (in fact it the rule of capital-market, by the capital-market and for the capital-market). Before British-India regime, Mughals attempted to expand the areas under their Kingdoms by defeating the small Kings/rulers ruling in different parts of the country. But they (Mughals) failed to unify the people of the country the way the British rulers did. The British rulers, however, did not dismantle the coercive superstructure of the state machine based upon which they (Mughals) used to rule their subjects. The common people in the then Mughal empires had been used as subjects to run the system and they did not have any say in the governance except begging or praying. The British rulers gradually captured most of the South-east Asian region by defeating numerous small Kings or rulers and brought the area and tied the people under its framework of exploitative rule.

 

To manage the rule of subjugation and exploitation, it was not possible for the Britishers to bring people from England to govern the vast area they captured in Asian region including India.  So they had to recruit some army men of the old Kings and they also had to provide some space to the representatives of the defeated Kings and or their subordinates (Zaminars) in administering the exploitative rules. Besides, they had to train and empower a section of ruling class people among Indians who could serve the interests of the Britishers.  All those sections of Indian people, who got exposed to the British rules/governance and thereby to the sense of democratic values and principles gradually, started mobilizing the common people with their vested motives. The Capitalist class also joined hands to finance the anti-British movement. This phase of organised rebel and revolt of Indian people continued for a century (starting from the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857 till 14th Aught 1947).

 

Most unfortunate part of the Indian freedom struggle was the absence of leadership of the common masses (like Mao Tse Tung in China, VI Lenin in Russia or Ho Chi Min in Vietnum). That section of the people who were tied or had vested interests with/in the British system of exploitative rules including the capitalist class people like the Tatas and Birlas, were dominant in the Congress Party that played the major role in awakening the Indian masses against British rule.  They promoted the leadership of Mr. M. K. Gandhi not recognizing him as a genuine patriot rather they (the vested interests in the Congress Party) found Gandhi’s ideas most suited to protect their interests. This does not mean that Mr. Gandhi served the interests of the capitalist class (Birlas) deliberately or consciously. Whatever may be the fact, Gandhiji’s leadership helped the capitalist class to take over the exploitative state machine (framed by the Mughals and strengthened by the British) from Britishers. Thus, Indian independence struggle culminated through compromises between the givers (Britishers) and takers (the leadership of the Indian Capitalist-vested interest classes) of the state power. In between 15th August 1947 (day of independence) and 26th January 1950 (promulgation of Constitutional Rules), there were huge tussles and turmoil between the British-led-Zaminders/Raiyatwars/Mahalwars and the representatives of the Capitalist class in the Congress party on the quest of governance. So long the problem between the Zaminders and the capitalist class was not resolved; Lord Mountbatten continued to be the Governor-general of India.  Finally, the Zamidars were forced to convince with sanctioning of certain privileges like Privy-Purse (compensation against the Zamindary abolition) and all such facilities to promote themselves tnto entrepreneurs in the new (capitalist) regime. In course of consolidation of capitalism in India during post-independence period, the Zaminders did all kinds of mischievous acts to satisfy their whims and fantasies.  Many so called progressive class of people and politicians extended support to the capitalist class (who were developing as strong enemy of the working class people) against the misdeeds of the ex-zaminders. Gaining some confidence, the capitalist class under the leadership of Mrs. Indira Gandhi dared to withdraw the grants and sanctions to the Ex-zamindars. And later to demolish the influence of the Ex-zaminders, the capitalist class promoted guerilla wars against them (Zaminders) in various parts of the country. In all such mischievous acts of the capitalist class, the common masses were/are being used as weapons.

 

Another perspectives of capitalist development was that it aims at capital growth and development not the growth and development of wisdom of manpower to conquer the nature and unearth it’s fallacies to make the human living peaceful, healthy and wealthy for all. Unlike non-living productive resources, it (capitalism) to exploits the manpower (living productive resource)   resources just to satisfy their hunger of profit maximization and enjoy themselves with all the best creations of the mankind lavishly depriving the creators of the wealth (working class people).

 

It is with that above mentioned viewpoints (aspiration of profit maximization with least investment); the capitalist class prefers employing labours from outside the locality of their business enterprises (similar principle is also followed in deploying the officials/administrators/persons in running the state powers in the state or the Centre). So long they (capitalist class) find themselves in profitable positions; they manage to continue with their exploitation in the way they liked conniving with the local administration (police and government staff), hooligans and mafias. But when they find their establishments to be non-profitable or when they aspire to promote themselves as national monopoly capitalists or imperialists, then they play several tricks. For closure or shifting of the business establishment, they (local capitalist class) mobilize and motivate the local youths against the outside laborers (whom they once brought from outside deploying special agents to serve their interests) saying that outsiders have occupied the positions which they (locals) should hold. This is how they (capitalists) promote parochial sentiments and fighting between working class people living in different parts of the country. And to develop themselves into national monopoly capitalist or multinational class, they finance to mobilize the common people (who have been grinded under the rule of capitalism) saying that they should fight for separate territory or state or councils so as to protect their interests, culture and traditions. If someone critically observe the rules of the separate states and councils that have been curved out of some old states like Jharkhand from Bihar, Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from Upper Pradesh, Gorkha Hill Council in West Bengal and several such councils in North-eastern states of Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, etc, then they can unearth the tricks of the capitalist class. This way of getting involved into separatist movements patronaged by the capitalist class would never bring solution of the basic problems of food security and sustainable livelihood of the working population.

 

To combat with the present obnoxious situation, the working people of India are to be mobilized to make aware of the unholy tricks capitalist class  played in collaboration with the multi-national capitalist class and then wage a nation-wide mass movement to root-out the rule of capital and establish tie rule of man which is also termed as socialism.

 

How to achieve this is another question. Answer of which could be found through in-depth study and analysis of the past glorious people’s movement either in India or elsewhere in the world that had overthrown the old state powers and reinstituted the new ones. In the process of rectifications and correction of the state machines, the masses had to sacrifice all along in the past and they will be sacrificing in the future so long the whole world is brought under the rule of communism as envisaged by  Karl Marx, the great leader of the proletariat. 

 

 

Note: Roots of all corrupt practices are within the framework of the capitalist state machine. It (corruption) cannot be rooted out merely through framing some rules like Lokpal. Anna’s concept of fighting corruption is another illusion that would dampen the spirit of the working class in the long run like that of the non-violence movement of Mr. M. K. Gandhi.

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